A Look at PostgreSQL in The Cloud

(with apologies to Judi & Ron Barrett)


About this talk

Evolution of Cloud offerings

What do you gain, what do you lose?

Should you use these services?

The Cloud

Is it a joke?

. . . Cloud =>  (  ) )

Why would someone do this?


Developers ^^

Why would someone do this?

Probably administered correctly

Developers ^^

Why would someone do this?




Managed Upgrades

Security & encryption

Compliance - HIPAA, SOX, etc.

Enter Heroku

Est. 2007

Innovations for Ruby developers

Build packs

git push deploys

Anonymous database backend

Enter Salesforce

Est. 2010

PostgreSQL Backend

Est. 2011

Heroku PostgreSQL Features

Versions 9.2 (depr), 9.3 - 9.6

Simplified pricing, based on Plan tier, with add-ons

Performance monitoring dashboard

Connection by SSL

Heroku Clips

Some tiers include on-disk encryption

Integration with Libratto, New Relic




hstore, CIText, uuid-ossp

cube, earthdistance

postgres_fdw, redis_fdw, dblink

fuzzystrmatch, pg_trgm


pg_partman, pg_prewarm

PL/pgSQL, PL/v8

Heroku PostgreSQL Limitations

App is tied to Heroku philosophy

Followers (not replicas)

No dynamic resize (copy & follower only - db in maint)

IOPs bound to tier

max_connections tied to plan tier

Most conf options are fixed and hidden, except VACUUM

Copy is a wrapper around pg_basebackup (presumably)

Failover requires app restart

Upgrades manually initiated (copy, or wrapper around pg_upgrade)

Enter AWS Relational Database Service

PostgreSQL Est. 2013

RDS Features

PostgreSQL 9.3 - 9.6

Tight integration with AWS, but no lock-in

Stats temp directory RAM disk

Huge pages

Event Triggers

HIPAA, SOX, others by default

Encrypted by default

RDS Features

Over 50 supported extensions

log_fdw, ip4r


GIN, GiST, bloom

PL/Perl, PL/TCL, PL/Coffee

PostGIS Tiger Geocoder

RDS Features

Such features

RDS Limitations

Pricing similar to EC2 - IOPs, Memory, Reserved, On-demand

Network bandwidth not included in cost

IOPs, memory, CPU can be burst-ey

Upgrades through maintenance window

Tablespace support, but all on same volume

Harder to export data

And The Rest

Azure PostgreSQL Features

Community Preview

Version 9.6

Simplified pricing, based on Compute Units (100 CU's ~ 1 Core)

35 Days of backups, PITR to 5 minute windows

Included in base price (no cost of storage)

All data encrypted by default

SSL by default

No downtime to scale CU

Azure PostgreSQL Limitations

Yeah, still Microsoft

When we looked at offering managed PostgreSQL service for developers, we of course wanted to address those basic managed service capabilities such as automated patching, backup and restore capability, monitoring, alerting, logging, etc. However, talking to customers we learnt that there is a unique opportunity for Microsoft to do something more and better than other cloud providers, specifically in areas such as reliability, security and elasticity and making it simple and worry free for developers. We have therefore in many ways redefined the value creation with managed database service.

Azure PostgreSQL Limitations

4 nines (99.99) on general release

Community preview pricing

Storage, memory is tied to CU

Few PG metrics in monitoring

Google Cloud SQL for Postgres


PostgreSQL 9.6


SSD or HDD storage


btree-gin, btree-gist, chkpass, citext, cube, dict_int, dict_xsyn, earthdistance, intagg, intarray, isn, ltree, pgstattuple, pg_trgm, tablefunc, tsm_system_rows, tsm_system_time, unaccent, uuid-ossp

GCE PostgreSQL available configuration

autovacuum autovacuum_analyze_scale_factor autovacuum_analyze_threshold autovacuum_naptime autovacuum_vacuum_scale_factor autovacuum_vacuum_threshold log_autovacuum_min_duration

Google Cloud SQL for Postgres


Pay for ingress and egress ($.05/GB, $.19/GB)

Cost of storage for backups


you cannot import or export more than one database at a time

No CSV import/export

So. . . Should I run my app on the Cloud?

Cloud all the things!

Thank you, OHIO!


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